Hipster: A young or old person who dresses in a mode or style, possibly incorporating facial hair (or not), possibly having tattoos (or not), who might like niche products including photographic film, vinyl records, higher quality beer/wine/meat, and bicycles with minimalist drive-trains (but not niche products like exotic sports cars or watches). They might listen to some new niche music (like young people have always done), or old niche music, or old popular music, and attend events with people with similar interests. This term is only useful because it indicates that its speaker is insecure and has psychological problems with how other people dress, what they eat, or their hobbies.
Liberal (US only)/Lefty: one who believes that one or more of the following are desirable: universally accessible education, public health-care, the rule of law and its consistent proportional application, racial equality, leadership accountability, the veracity of information sources, scientific method, separation of church and state, evidence driven policy and risk management, international communication and compromise. This term would be commonly applied to Ronald Reagan if he appeared today instead of the 1970s/1980s. It is only useful because it indicates that its speaker values tribalism and mindless acquiesence to raw power (which they believe will be used in their favour) over fair dealing and honesty.
Cultural Marxist: An educated Liberal (see above) in a public position such as academia, the media, or public policy, who writes and speaks in favour of any of the ideas listed under Liberal. This term is only useful in that it indicates that its speaker is a conspiracy theorist with an "us vs them" mentality, who is absolutely unable to judge any particular policy on its merits.
Patriot: A term generally used by flag-wavers about themselves or those they support to infer that they are righteous by association with a country's flag, and therefore all of their ideas are also right, even when directly at odds with that country's constitution. The term is useful because it identifies the speaker is a nativist who believes their national group to be superior to, and more deserving than others. Such a person can never be expected to engage in fair dealing with those they recognise as foreign.
Freedom: A term frequently used to justify rash behaviour without any balancing consideration of responsibility. The term is only useful in that it indicates its speaker desires great lattitude to engage in their preferred practices, but cares little about the right of others to do the same. Often used in conjunction with Patriot, because the combination allows nativists to grant themselves broad lattitude, while placing severe restrictions on foreigners because of 'national security' or attempts to prevent change or simply exclude foreigners.
National Security: A term used to justify rash behaviour by the powerful, irrespective of the long-term effects on a nation's peace, prosperity, and viability.